The McDonaldization of pretty much everything…part 5

“The bureaucracy is a dehumanizing place in which to work and by which to be serviced. The main reason we think of McDonaldization as irrational, and ultimately unreasonable, is that it tends to become a dehumanizing system that may become anti-human or even destructive to human beings.” – George Ritzer

(Read parts 1, 2, 3, 4)

Wall Street bankers discuss the housing market crash rationally (image courtesy Idle Log)

In part 4 of this series I discussed how the tentacles of McDonaldization have spread far beyond the fast food industry and attached themselves to almost every institution of American culture. This implementation of the hyper-rational methods developed by Ray Kroc for the McDonald’s food chain, however, when implemented, tend to foster irrational behavior and results.

As parts 1 and 2 of this series explained, McDonaldization is evolved from bureaucracy, a form of standardization that emphasizes chain of command, efficiency through strict limitation of individual duties and responsibilities, and above all, strict control over all operations. Kroc’s adaptation of this methodology for his hamburger stands distilled the rigidity of bureaucracy into four essential elements George Ritzer calls McDonaldization: efficiency, calculability, predictability, control. The application of these elements, as explained in part 3 of the series, was wildly successful – financially – and made McDonald’s the envy of first their direct competitors and then of the entire business world. Businesses of all sorts began to apply the McDonald’s methodology to their companies – with varying degrees of success.  Continue reading

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Fats Domino: the big easy from The Big Easy…

“Well, I wouldn’t want to say that I started it (rock ‘n’ roll), but I don’t remember anyone else before me playing that kind of stuff.” – Fats Domino

Fats Domino in 1962 (image courtesy Wikimedia)

Antoine Domino, Jr. was perhaps the most relaxed guy ever to be a rock star. Elvis’s pelvic gyrating, Little Richard’s glitzy preening, Chuck Berry’s showy duck walking, Jerry Lee Lewis’s acrobatic piano pounding are all part of the lore and legend of early rock ‘n’ roll.

Fats did none of those things. Instead of engaging in wild activity that energized crowds to frenzy, Fats played his piano and smiled a lot. And he killed his audiences just as effectively as any of the above greats. If the man from the Big Easy could be said to have a shtick, it would be that he himself was the big easy: laid back, relaxed, chill, wonderfully musical in a way that made being musical seem – well, easy.

Domino’s influence on the musicians who came after him was enormous. Paul McCartney has said in interviews that he was trying to write a Fats Domino song when he wrote “Lady Madonna.” Randy Newman has said that almost every song he writes begins as a Fats Domino style New Orleans shuffle.  Continue reading

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The McDonaldization of pretty much everything…part 4

“McDonaldization affects not only the restaurant business, but also, education, work, healthcare, travel, leisure, dieting, politics, the family and virtually every other aspect of life.” – George Ritzer

McDonaldization’s Principles (image courtesy Thalia Torres Sociology Blog)

The success of Ray Kroc’s methodology, named McDonaldization after the restaurant chain Kroc built into the most powerful and successful food service company in the world,  impressed, first McDonald’s competitors, then those in charge of other – not just industries, but other areas of human endeavor.

Wanting to be more efficient – and, hopefully, more effective – is not a bad goal in and of itself. Where this can go awry – and go awry it has – is when – as has happened in proof of Robert Merton’s law of unintended consequences – this principle is applied in cultural situations where its application makes no sense. Those other elements of McDonaldization – predictablility, calculability, and control – also play roles in moves toward efficiency. It is almost impossible – at least in a culture besotted with the ideas (and ideals) of capitalism for these unintended consequences not to occur.

When one enters a McDonald’s restaurant and orders a cheeseburger, a McDonald’s employee has been trained to know exactly how quickly that cheeseburger should be prepared and served and how much to charge the customer. The employee’s sole task becomes repeating the process that produced that cheeseburger and got it into the customer’s hands after getting the customer’s money – again and again and again and again and again.

If this sounds like it would be mind and soul numbing, that’s because it is. But it is also efficient, calculable, predictable, and easy to control. And it has brought McDonald’s enormous success and wealth. Continue reading

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All shook up: a historian examines rock and roll…sorta

“Rock and roll might best be summed up as monotony tinged with hysteria.” – Vance Packard

All Shook Up: How Rock ‘n’ Roll Changed America by Glenn Altschuler (image courtesy Goodreads)

I just finished a book that is kinda/sorta amusing, kinda/sorta amazing. Glenn Altschuler’s All Shook Up: How Rock ‘n’ Roll Changed America will amuse anyone who knows a lot about rock music and rock music history (ahem); it will amaze anyone who thinks rock and roll books should be about – well, rock and roll, for one thing. This historical account of the rise of rock and roll in the 1950’s and its evolution and status through to the early 2000’s is long on what we call cultural history.

In some ways this is a good thing because Altschuler can focus on America as a society and how rock and roll music’s explosion into public consciousness, after simmering in a stew of up tempo country music (think Hank Williams’ “Hey, Good Lookin'”) and rhythm and blues (think of Joe Turner’s “Shake, Rattle, and Roll”), affected those who were teenagers, their parents, teachers, and other elders, and the social structure those parents supported and sustained.

The major figures who emerged as rock and roll’s stars – figures such as Chuck Berry, Little Richard, Jerry Lee Lewis, and, of course, Elvis, receive what feels like cursory treatment, at least as cursory a treatment as Altschuler can give them and explore his thesis (see title). In other words, Professor Altschuler is more interested in the effects of rock and roll on American culture than in rock and roll itself. Continue reading

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Nathaniel Hawthorne: who’s that?

Nobody, I think, ought to read poetry, or look at pictures or statues, who cannot find a great deal more in them than the poet or artist has actually expressed.” – Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Marble Faun

Nathaniel Hawthorne (image courtesy Wikimedia)

I was listening to a radio version of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s “Lady Eleanore’s Mantle” (called “The Curse of the Mantle” on the program) on XM’s Radio Classics channel several days ago. As host Greg Bell, a classic radio era expert who serves as host on the channel did his outro, he talked a little about Hawthorne and noted that he was an “American author whose noted works include The House of the Seven Gables and The Scarlet Letter.”

Greg Bell is a skilled announcer and a knowledgeable fellow, and I enjoy his program notes on the history of the programs he presents. He is invariably chipper and pleasant in his delivery, and he is almost always complimentary about the programs.

His remarks about Hawthorne in the quote above are accurate, of course, and certainly Bell meant only to provide a bit of gloss about the story (which comes from Hawthorne’s Twice Told Tales) and its author. But this was one of those times when his chipper delivery and all too brief remarks struck me as all wrong for informing his audience about an author whose work is as brooding and complex as Hawthorne’s.

As a thought exercise, let’s look at how some others contemporaries described the estimable Hawthorne….
Continue reading

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The McDonaldization of pretty much everything…part 3

 “If we are going to go anywhere, we’ve got to have talent. And, I’m going to put my money in talent.” – Ray Kroc, founder, McDonald’s

McDonald’s founder Ray Kroc, channeling his inner Che Guevara (image courtesy Pinterest)

Read part 1, part 2)

If you’ve ever worked in a fast food restaurant, especially any big chain fast food restaurant (and millions have, so the odds are good many people who read this will have done so), you remember the training: every action is done by a specific rule, and it must be done by that rule. Every. Single. Time.

There’s a reason for that.  It’s called Hamburger University.

Milkshake mixer salesman Ray Kroc approached Richard and Maurice McDonald in 1954 with the idea of franchising their Southern California hamburger stands. His interest was to create a series of stores, tightly controlled (Kroc would allow franchisees to purchase only one store at a time which gave him a measure of control no their restaurant chain possessed) and modeled on his vision of “mechanized” food served efficiently, predictably, and calculably.

His plan succeeded beyond even his fondest dreams. Continue reading

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The McDonaldization of pretty much everything…part 2

“Most specifically, irrationality means that rational systems are unreasonable systems. By that I mean that they deny the basic humanity, the human reason, of the people who work within or are served by them.” – George Ritzer 

Adolf Eichmann, the perfect bureaucrat (image courtesy Wikimedia)

When we ended part 1 of this series, we were talking about government bureaucracy. The hyper-rationalism and focus on chain of command, efficiency, and control that government bureaucracy relies upon, sadly,is epitomized by the bureaucratic machinery the Nazis developed to implement The Final Solution.

The attempt to exterminate all of the Jewish population of Europe was a highly bureaucratic operation, and it was characterized by Nazi attempts to implement the characteristics of effective bureaucracy. The system operated in a rigidly controlled hierarchical manner, which likely explains the now cliched excuse offered by many in that bureaucracy of death that they were “following orders.” Tasks within the system were hyper-rationally reduced to their simplest elements and personnel were given specific, limited jobs within the system and made to understand that they should not look beyond their given duties. Careful accounts of “production” were kept and provide some of the most chilling reading in human history.

Perhaps most importantly, human beings were detached from their humanity by use of abstract language. References to “units” instead of persons is but one example of this sort of abstraction. This detachment of the human (and humane) from the process, one suspects, allowed its performers, to use that lovely French term of description and derision, fonctionnaires, to rationalize their behavior as they performed their ghastly evil.  Continue reading

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